The results of these experiments demonstrate that (i) biased search rankings can shift the voting preferences of undecided voters by 20% or more, (ii) the shift can be much higher in some demographic groups, and (iii) search ranking bias can be masked so that people show no awareness of the manipulation. We call this type of influence, which might be applicable to a variety of attitudes and beliefs, the search engine manipulation effect.
Why does junk news spread so fast on social media? Algorithms, Advertising and Exposure in Public Life - Knight Foundation
The term “fake news” has risen to prominence in the post-truth world, and is often used as an umbrella term to describe a wide range of problematic content, from accidental misinformation to purposefully misleading and deceptive information. The term is also used discursively to describe the swath of incendiary and outrageous headlines, hate speech, hyper partisan content, and political propaganda that have partially characterized the post truth world.
Smartphones enable easy access to social media or gaming platforms, including on school grounds. Phone addiction (compulsively checking smartphones throughout the day), social media addiction (on social media platforms constantly) and internet addiction (with difficulties defining the difference between virtual and physical worlds) all present significant challenges for schools. The World Health Organisation recently included ‘gaming disorder’ in their classification of diseases.
While the increased use of the Internet has propelled the growth of the digital economy, and democratised access to information, it has also given rise to complex policy challenges surrounding the need to address harmful online content and conduct. At the heart of this challenge lies the issue of ‘intermediary liability’. Should entities that transmit/carry/distribute third party (user) content, and enable online interactivity be held responsible for harmful acts that may be carried out on or using their services?
This article explores present-day concerns about online privacy, but in order to understand and explain on-the-ground activities and the anxieties they stir, it identifies the principles, forces, and values behind them. It considers why privacy online has been vexing, even beyond general concerns over privacy; why predominant approaches have persisted despite their limited results; and why they should be challenged. Finally, the essay lays out an alternative approach to addressing the problem of privacy online based on the theory of privacy as contextual integrity.
While our research has moved on from persuasive technology to focus on designing for healthy behavior change, we believe it is important to continue to highlight the ethical contributions in the field of Persuasive Technology so that those who are responsible for designing persuasive technologies can do so in an ethical way.